1. Choosing a topic

Though it may not seem so, this may be the most difficult part of developing an article.
Choose a topic that interests you, one that you particularly like or you think you can present well. It is better if it is a current issue so that more people will be interested in reading it.

Do not forget that it must have an explicit connection with the UNIV Congress theme.
On the web there are some suggestions.


2. Gathering and reading information

 It is essential to have someone who can give advice on what to read: there are many resources but not everything is useful. Choosing some books in the bibliography suggested by UNIV can facilitate this process.

It is important to read, but above all to understand what you are reading. We recommend making a record of what you read, such as keeping a word document summarizing what you have read, making notes on the margin or simply keeping all the books or documents that are to be read in one place (a shelf or a folder on the computer). This will then facilitate the compiling of the article

Where to find information?

Libraries, university, Internet

Wikipedia can be helpful, but it is not very academic.


3. Organizing the information

Make a general outline for the paper:

Introduction: guides and motivates the reader. It brings out the objectives and the general scheme of the paper. Though it may seem strange, it is best to finish writing the introduction once you have done everything else.

Body: it is the core (nucleus) of the paper. Therefore, it needs to be organized in chapters, with each chapter having a specific objective. It is important to take into account the logical order of the chapters: moving from the causes to the consequences, from the known to the unknown, from the empirical acts to the theory or vice versa, etc. They can be further divided into sub-sections.

Be on the lookout for repetitions and contradictions. What is most important is the development of an interesting presentation that is well thought out.
Conclusion: summarizes and presents the main empirical findings and / or final deductions (conclusions). This section should not present new information; so the conclusion is precisely what was reached in the body of the paper. It may be one or more conclusions. It is important to demonstrate in the conclusion that one has met the objectives of the paper presented in the introduction.


4. Writing

When writing, you should follow the order established in the outline.
If the paper is distributed among various persons, you need to be careful not have repetitions; and that the paper has a single style.

Keep in mind that you should have one idea per paragraph. It should be brief and maintain a logical order: moving from the main ideas to the secondary ones. It is very important that ideas are supported by the bibliography or objective data.

For this it is essential to use citations. There are several ways to cite. Here are two simple and effective ways:
– (Author) SURNAME, NAME, Book Title, City, Publisher, Year.
– (Author) SURNAME, NAME, “Title of the article or chapter”, Title of the journal or book where it appears, Issue of the journal, Year, City, Pages where it is published…

What is important is to maintain a single citation style throughout the paper. Moreover, you should not reduce the paper to a sequence of citations, but rather discuss and use the citations to support what you want to convey.
In this type of work personal reflection is very important and the paper should convey that.


5. Revising the paper

It is highly recommended to revise the paper several times to confirm that it follows a logical order and that reading it is not exhausting. This is also a good time to include an example or anecdote that may make it entertaining, or to replace a word with a synonym, etc. It is also useful to have someone else read the paper that can give suggestions.

Other details to check include:

  • Title: on finishing the paper, it is a good idea to revise the title.
  • It may also help to read the introduction and conclusions (without the body of the paper) to confirm that they make sense.
  • Do not forget to revise the citations, bibliography and annexes, format details such as the numbering of the pages, the font, and the cover page (that it contains the required data), etc.